Being a Friend to Nature: Environmental Virtues and Ethical Ideals

Document Type

Article - Merrimack Access Only

Publication Title

Ethics, Policy & Environment

Publication Date


Abstract/ Summary

This paper argues that environmental virtue ethics requires the adoption of an ethical ideal in order to guide the identification and practice of virtues. I recommend friendship as one such ideal due to emphasis such an ideal places upon the quality of the relationship with nature rather than the evaluation of individual actions. After describing the value of friendship as an ethical ideal, I respond to some of the objections that have been raised against it in the context of environmental virtue.