In the 1930s, federal American Indian policy shifted dramatically away from seeking to end all tribes and break up reservation lands. The shift towards re-recognizing American Indian Native nations as enduring political entities is often characterized as beginning under President Roosevelt and with the guidance of John Collier. In fact, it was Roosevelt's predecessor, Herbert Hoover, who gave attention to and laid the foundation for this profound shift in federal Indian policy. This paper presents the historical evidence of Hoover's deeply held interest in American Indian affairs and the consequences of this interest. Hoover began his term as president with great concern for American Indians. President Hoover’s vice president, Charles Curtis, was the first (and only) Vice President of American Indian descent. Hoover prioritized attention to American Indian issues. Hoover advocated for self-determination for American Indians, especially in regards to educational and financial stability. Due to these factors along with many more, President Hoover instigated a variety of changes for American Indians. This paper investigates Hoover’s public statements, policies enacted during his presidency, and information from his memoirs and writings to offer evidence for Hoover’s essential role in creating the foundations for the redirection of federal American Indian policy.
"Herbert Hoover and the Problem of American Indians,"
Across the Bridge: The Merrimack Undergraduate Research Journal: Vol. 1
, Article 4.
Available at: https://scholarworks.merrimack.edu/atb/vol1/iss1/4