Article - Open Access
Molecular and Cellular Biology
American Society for Microbiology
The activation of muscle-specific gene expression requires the coordinated action of muscle regulatory proteins and chromatin-remodeling enzymes. Microarray analysis performed in the presence or absence of a dominant-negative BRG1 ATPase demonstrated that approximately one-third of MyoD-induced genes were highly dependent on SWI/SNF enzymes. To understand the mechanism of activation, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitations analyzing the myogenin promoter. We found that H4 hyperacetylation preceded Brg1 binding in a MyoD-dependent manner but that MyoD binding occurred subsequent to H4 modification and Brg1 interaction. In the absence of functional SWI/SNF enzymes, muscle regulatory proteins did not bind to the myogenin promoter, thereby providing evidence for SWI/SNF-dependent activator binding. We observed that the homeodomain factor Pbx1, which cooperates with MyoD to stimulate myogenin expression, is constitutively bound to the myogenin promoter in a SWI/SNF-independent manner, suggesting a two-step mechanism in which MyoD initially interacts indirectly with the myogenin promoter and attracts chromatin-remodeling enzymes, which then facilitate direct binding by MyoD and other regulatory proteins.
de la Serna, I. L.,
Berkes, C. A.,
Bergstrom, D. A.,
Dacwag, C. S.,
Tapscott, S. J.,
Imbalzano, A. N.
(2005). MyoD Targets Chromatin Remodeling Complexes to the Myogenin Locus Prior to Forming a Stable DNA-Bound Complex. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 25(10), 3997-4009.
Available at: http://scholarworks.merrimack.edu/bio_facpubs/5